Cotton is grown in black soils with sufficient water resources.
Since the root of the plant grows very deep into the soil, it can resist drought for quite long, unlike other crops.
Hence, it is also grown widely in the rain-fed lands.
The crop is one of the cash crops and it is preferred widely for cultivation by farmers.
Also, cotton is a fiber used for clothing and bedding. It has a large demand in the markets.
However, the quality of cotton decides the price of the final product.
This quality depends on many factors like the seed, soil, environment, rainfall, and pests.
How to Grow Cotton Plants
Cotton can be grown in lands with water resources like tube well or river irrigation system. It is also grown in lands with sufficient rainfall during the wet season.
Types of cotton:
- Long-staple cotton: length of fiber is 24 to 27 mm.
- Medium staple cotton: length of fiber is 20 to 24 mm
- Long-staple cotton: length of fiber below 20 mm. it is inferior among all types.
Cotton cultivation is possible in different kinds of like the well-drained alluvial soils to black soils of varying depth and red soils. Cotton is moderately tolerant to salinity and sensitive to waterlogging conditions. Hence, well-drained soils are suitable for cotton cultivation.
Cotton is a semi-xerophyte crop. It can be grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The minimum temperature required for better germination in cotton is 15oC, whereas, for better vegetative growth, cotton crops need a temperature range between 21-27oC, and it can tolerate temperature up to 43oC but temperature below 21oC show an adverse effect on crop growth and development.
For better growth and development of the cotton crop, good land preparation is necessary. It can be done by plowing and harrowing the land twice or thrice. Plow the field to obtain a fine tilth. Add 12.5 t farmyard manure or composted coir pith per hectare besides chiseling to get increased yields of cotton
Cotton is mainly propagated by seed. Sowing was done during the onset of monsoon. Sowing during may end to June middle will provide good yields. Avoid sowing cotton after July 15th. It is a good practice to sow the cotton seeds after rain. This is because the soil is moist with sufficient microbial activity to support germination.
The seed rate is 1-kilo grams per hectare in hybrid types and 3 – 5 kilograms in high-density planting.
Spacing will differ depending upon various factors. Like, method of planting, type of soil, the variety used, etc. Generally, a spacing of 120 cm between rows and 45 – 60 cm between plant to plant is followed in black cotton soils. In high-density planting, very low spacing is followed compared to the standard planting methods like 45 – 60 cm × 10 – 15 cm.
Apply 4 tonnes of farmyard manure per acre during the last plowing and plow it well. General fertilizer recommendation for cotton is
36: 18: 18-kilo grams of Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potash in case of American types.
38: 24: 24 kilograms of Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potash in the case of American types. Nitrogen and potassium fertilizers need to be applied in 3 – 4 split doses during the crop growth and development.
In the early growth stages of the cotton, water requirements will be less compared to the other growing stages; however on average, it requires an average rainfall of 150 to 200 cm, and its water requirement is highest during flowering and boll development. It usually is flood irrigated, although irrigation by furrow or alternate furrow method is more effective and water-saving. But in hybrids, drip irrigation is gaining importance. In cotton, irrigation should be provided at 50-70% depletion of available soil moisture. In sandy loam soils of the northern zone, 3-5 irrigations are commonly given.
To control the weeding in the initial stages of growth, spray pre-emergence herbicides like fluchloralin 45 % at 1 liter per acre before 3 – 4 days of sowing. After one month after sowing spray Targa super at 400 ml per acre. Along with chemical sprays, manual weeding should be carried out at regular intervals.
Pests and diseases of cotton
The cotton plant is mostly destroyed by infections and insects. So, keep a regular watch on change in color of the leaf, bud, leaf cuts, etc. If so, spray suitable pesticide or insecticide to control them.
Methyl demeton or Dimethoate @ 400-600 ml/ha.
Endosulfan at 1.5 liters per ha should be a spray to control thrips.
Triazophos @ 600-800 ml/ha.Or neem product @ 2.5 litre per ha.
Single time spray of Endosulfan or quinalphosorChloropyriphosat 2.5 lit per hectare will control these bollworms. Spraying of synthetic pyrethroids 500 ml per hectare and HNPV @ 250 LE per hectare will works effectively against bollworms.
Spray with streptocyclin (0.01%).
Fungal leaf spots:
Copper oxychloride (0.25%).
Spray wettable sulfur (0.2%) or carbendazim (0.1%).
To control the boll rot, sprays of carbendazim or copper oxychloride are recommended.
Drench the plants in an affected patch with carbendazim (0.1%). Select resistant varieties that are resistant to root rot. Apply around 24 kilograms of ZnSo4 per hectare of land.
Choose resistant varieties: LRK-5166, HS875, LHH-144, and LRK-516, etc. all these varieties possess resistance to leaf curl.
Irrigate the field and spray MgSo4 1% or Urea 2%, followed by DAP 2% at the time of initiation of leaf reddening.
A cotton crop can have approximately eight rounds of cotton ball pods. It is hard to cash on all the rounds.
So whenever the cotton pods are matured into cotton, collect them.
To get good quality seeds, the time of picking is significant. Picking should only be done when the cotton is fully mature, i.e., when the bolls begin to open. Several pickings are necessary since bolls ripen every two to three months. Early cotton-picking gives slightly better seeds for germination as compared to the late pickings. The cotton picked from late-formed bolls (last pickings) should not use for seed extraction.
By using hybrids and adopting good management practices, we can reap out yields up to 800 – 10000 kg per acre.