Branches of Agriculture and their Applications

Agricultural science is a branch of science that deals with the production of food, fiber, and other materials from farming. The branches include

  1. Agronomy
  2. Horticulture
  3. Agricultural engineering
  4. Animal Science
  5. Agricultural economics
  6. Genetics and Plant Breeding
  7. Dairy sciences and food technology
  8. Agricultural entomology and zoology
  9. Soil Science & Chemistry

Agricultural sciences comprise research and development as well as a study on the following factors:

  • Plant Breeding and Genetics
  • Horticulture
  • Plant Pathology
  • Entomology
  • Soil Science

Production techniques (such as management of irrigation)

Minimizing the harmful effects of pests on the crop as well as animal production systems.

Improvement of productivity of agriculture in terms of both quantity and quality

Transforming the primary products into end-consumer products

Prevention as well as management of adverse environmental conditions (such as degradation of soil, management of waste products, bio-remediation)

Theoretical production ecology that relates to crop production modeling

Traditional agricultural processes, often termed subsistence agriculture, allow feeding most of the poorest people in the world.

Food production and demand on a worldwide basis, with a special eye on the major producers.

The major branches of agriculture are

To be very concise, there are five major branches, while others are additions.


  • Agronomy is the science that uses several applications of biology, economics, chemistry, ecology, water science, soil science, pest management, genetics, etc., to improve and manage the main food crops of the world.
  • It is quite different from the plant sciences of pomology, horticulture, range science, and such types of applied plant sciences.
  • Agronomic crops are those crops that occupy a large area and form the basis of the food production systems of the world, which are often mechanized.
  • Examples include rice, wheat, corn, alfalfa, soybean, and forage crops, sugar beets, beans, canola, cotton, etc.
  • They are also sometimes called ‘field crops’. They comprise a large majority of the agricultural acreage as well as crop revenue.
  • Agronomy is the science that views agriculture from an integrated and holistic perspective, imposing a practical decision that pertains to food production.
  • Agronomy takes into consideration the entire range of influences on crop production, which typically includes climate as well as adaptation, soil, water availability, and the typical properties of the soil, and also mentions how the soil will interact with the growing crop.
  • Agronomy considers how to grow crops effectively and profitably and also helps in the conservation of natural resources and the protection of the environment.
  • It requires the combined integration of many sciences, including collaborations among various diverse fields, which include the soil, plant, or weed sciences.
  • It also involves disciplines like ecology, climatology, economics, and entomology. Methods of effective crop production are included in scientific research and, hence, are, by nature, evolving and improving.


  • Horticulture is the science that also includes the art of growing plants (vegetables, fruits, flowers).
  • It also includes the restoration of a landscape, conservation of plants, management of soil, construction of landscape, and maintenance.
Branches of Agriculture
  • Horticulture does not consist of animal husbandry or large-scale production of crops.
  • Horticulturists use their skills, knowledge, and technologies in order to grow plants intensively for human consumption and non-food uses and also for personal and social needs.
  • Their work includes the propagation of plants as well as cultivation.
  • The main objective involves the improvement of plant growth, nutritional value, quality, yields, and resistance to diseases, insects, pests, and environmental issues.
  • They do their work in the form of designers, therapists, gardeners, growers, and technical advisors related to sections of horticulture, like the food and non-food sectors.
  • Horticulture also refers to the growing of plants in a garden or in the field.

Agricultural Engineering

  • It is the discipline of engineering that involves the study of agricultural production as well as processing.
  • Agricultural engineering combines the disciplines of civil, mechanical, electrical, and chemical engineering principles with knowledge of agricultural principles according to technological principles.
  • A major objective of this discipline is to improve the efficacy as well as the sustainability of various agricultural practices.

Animal Science

  • The field of animal science relates to animal and livestock breeding (poultry), behavior, growth, and management.
  • Animal scientists explore humane ways to treat animals. It also helps to develop better methods to process animal products necessary for human consumption.

Agricultural economics

  • Agricultural economics is the branch of applied economics that deals with the costs of farming.
  • It includes the tools of both microeconomics and macroeconomics and utilizes them to solve issues in a particular area.
  • With the inflation of food rising and agricultural disputes increasing, the subject has less often been so topical.
  • In a nutshell, agricultural economics is basically the systematic study of the allocation, utilization, and distribution of the resources put to use, along with the produced commodities, with the assistance of farming.
  • At the micro-level, the production functions and the relationship between labor and capital need to be understood.
  • On the other hand, at the macro level, the subject actually makes a detailed study of the various ways governments decide in order to support the farmers.

Genetics and Plant Breeding

It is a branch that studies gene function at the molecular level and aims to produce plant species that are resistant to diseases and drought and have higher yields.

Dairy sciences

This studies the application of biological and chemical principles for the production and care of dairy animals and their products.

Agricultural entomology

This studies the disease-causing pests and their control, as well as the beneficial insects in agriculture.

Soil Science

Soil Science studies the properties of soil and their relation to plant growth.


  • In a nutshell, we can say that when the lion’s share of a country’s population is dependent on agriculture for its livelihood, the average incomes are low.
  • However, when most of the people rely on the farm for their living, the health of the people would be good due to that lifestyle.
  • This leads to a better environment, and following natural methods of farming would lead to less input expenditure and higher returns. Then, the nation started developing economically.
    So, in order for a country to prosper, agricultural science is of utmost importance. When you face any issue related to agricultural practices, then the best persons on the globe who will be able to help you out of your situation are the agricultural scientists.

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  1. Am so glad for the conclusion quoted last here, thanks to so much, because i love to be a farmer as well as doctor also, just to saves life of my people. but doing farmer i can save life through health production of food. thank you.

  2. PNG government are inconsiderate to follow up on agricultural grants to certain Provinces which have been misappropriate by paper agriculturalist and no extension agent deploy to educate farmers.
    It’s great I am a agriculturalist and a farmer but lacking government support in terms of creating market niche for certain tropical crops.


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