Agricultural science is a branch of science that deals with the production of food, fiber and other material from farming.
In simple terms, it is a multidisciplinary field in biology, which consists of the natural, economic as well as social sciences that find application in the understanding and practice of agriculture.
Agricultural sciences comprise research, development as well as a study on the following factors:
- Plant Breeding and Genetics
- Plant Pathology
- Soil Science
Production techniques (such as management of irrigation)
Minimizing the harmful effects of pests on the crop as well as animal production systems.
Improvement of productivity of agriculture in terms of both quantity and quality
Transforming the primary products into end-consumer products
Prevention as well as management of the adverse environmental conditions (such as degradation of soil, management of waste products, bio-remediation)
Theoretical production ecology that relates to crop production modeling
Traditional agricultural processes often termed subsistence agriculture, which allows feeding most of the poorest people in the world.
Food production and demand on a worldwide basis, with a special eye to the major producers.
The major branches of agriculture are
To be very concise, there are five major branches as follows:
- Agricultural engineering
- Animal science
- Agricultural economics
- Agronomy is the science that uses several applications of biology, economics, chemistry, ecology, water science, soil science, pest management, genetics, etc. to improve and manage the main food crops of the world.
- It is quite different from the plant sciences of pomology, horticulture, range science, and such types of applied plant sciences.
- Agronomic crops are those crops that occupy a large area and form the bases of the food production systems of the world, which are often mechanized.
- Examples include rice, wheat, corn, alfalfa, soybean, and forage crops, sugar beets, beans, canola, cotton, etc.
- They are also sometimes called ‘field crops’. They comprise a large majority of the agricultural acreage as well as crop revenue.
- Agronomy is the science that views agriculture from an integrated and holistic perspective, imposing a practical decision that pertains to food production.
- Agronomy takes into consideration the entire range of influences on crop production, which typically includes climate as well as adaptation, soil, water availability, the typical properties of the soil, and also mentions how the soil will interact with the growing crop.
- Agronomy considers how to grow the crops effectively and profitably and also helps in the conservation of natural resources and protection of the environment.
- It requires the combined integration of many sciences, including collaborations among various diverse fields, which includes the soil, plant, or weed sciences.
- It also involves disciplines like ecology, climatology, economics, and entomology. Methods of effective crop production are included with scientific research and hence are by nature evolving and improving.
- Horticulture is the science that also includes the art of growing plants (vegetables, fruits, flowers).
- It also includes the restoration of a landscape, conservation of plants, management of soil, construction of landscape, maintenance.
- Horticulture does not consist of animal husbandry or large-scale production of crops..
- Horticulturists use their skills, knowledge, and technologies in order to grow plants intensively for human consumption and non-food uses and also for personal and social needs.
- Their work includes the propagation of plants as well as cultivation.
- The main objective involves the improvement of plant growth, nutritional value, quality, yields, and resistance to diseases, insects, pests, and environmental issues.
- They do their work in the form of designers, therapists, gardeners, growers, and technical advisors related to sections of horticulture like the food and non-food sectors.
- Horticulture also refers to the growing of plants in a garden or in the field.
- It is the discipline in engineering that involves the study of agricultural production as well as processing.
- Agricultural engineering combines the disciplines of civil, mechanical electrical, and chemical engineering principles with knowledge of agricultural principles according to technological principles.
- A major objective of this discipline is to improve the efficacy as well as the sustainability of the various agricultural practices.
- The field of animal science relates to animal and livestock breeding (poultry), behavior, growth, and management.
- Animal scientists explore humane ways to treat animals. It also helps to develop some better methods to process animal products necessary for human consumption.
- Agricultural economics is the branch of applied economics that deals with the costs of farming.
- It includes the tools of both microeconomics and macroeconomics and utilizes them to solve issues in a particular area.
- With the inflation of food rising and agricultural disputes increasing, the subject has less often been so topical.
- In a nutshell, agricultural economics is basically the systematic study of the allocation, utilization, and distribution, of the resources, put to use, along with the produced commodities, with the assistance of farming.
- At the micro-level, the production functions and the relationship between labor and capital need to be understood.
- On the other hand, at the macro level, the subject actually makes a detailed study on the various ways governments decide in order to support the farmers.
- In a nutshell, we can say that when the lion’s share of a country’s population is dependent on agriculture for its livelihood, the average incomes are low.
- However, when most of the people rely on the farm for their living, the health of the people would be good due to that lifestyle.
- This leads to a better environment and following natural methods of farming would lead to less input expenditure and higher returns. Then the nation starts developing economically.
So, in order for a country to prosper agricultural science is of utmost importance. When you face any issue related to agricultural practices, then the best persons on the globe who will be able to help you out of your situation are the agricultural scientists.