Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) belongs to the family Zingiberaceae; Throughout the world, it used as a spice in the preparation of various food items.
The color of ginger rhizomes ranges from white to yellowish-brown. It is marketed in different forms like dry ginger, ginger oil, ginger candy, ginger beer, and ginger squash, etc. since ancient times, it has been used in the preparation of various medicines throughout the world. The percentage of essential oil in ginger is 3 percent.
How to Grow Ginger
First chose a right variety of ginger. These include
Different varieties include
Soil and climate
As ginger is a tropical crop, it does well under tropical climatic conditions. There is good rhizome development was observed at cool and dry climatic conditions. For better growth and development, it requires an ample amount of moisture, and ginger is a shade-loving crop. Optimum rainfall for ginger cultivation is 150-300 cm during the growing period.
Ideal soils for ginger cultivation are soils with deep, fertile with good drainage facility. Do not go with the same crop in the same piece of land every year.
Selection of site
Ginger cultivation should be taken up in places with no history of pests and diseases. One can propagate ginger in their gardens or grow in large scale in the farms. But soil analysis should be conducted before.
Add around 3- 5 tones of well-decomposed farmyard manure to the soil during the last plowing. To get fine tilth plow the soil twice or thrice after that harrow the soil to pulverize it. When ginger is cultivated as a rain-fed crop, raised bed cultivation is advisable.
Around 1200- 1500 kilograms of rhizomes are required for planting in one hectare of area. Rhizomes selected as planting material should be free from pests and diseases.
Time of planting
The perfect time for planting ginger in the middle of April. However, it can be planted from April to May.
Method of planting
Propagating material in ginger is called as bits. Bits weighing 25-30 grams with 4 -5 cm were separated from the mother rhizomes to use as planting material. Spacing adopted in ginger cultivation is 30 cm X 25 cm. planting of rhizomes should be done at a depth of 4-5 cm.
Treat the planting material with Dithane M-45 at a rate g/liter as it prevents the crop from various pests and diseases and helps in early germination. Dipping rhizomes in cow urine for half an hour before planting provides better results.
Sprouting commences after 15 – 30 days after planting. Fields need to keep moist until the onset of rains to ensure proper growth and development of the plant. Depending upon the amount of rainfall, ginger requires around 25 – 40 number of irrigations.
Manures and fertilizers
For getting good yields, we need to apply heavy doses of fertilizers as ginger is an exhaustive crop. The recommended dose of fertilizers is NPK at a rate of 100:90:90 kg/ha, along with 3 -5 tones of farmyard manures. Nitrogen should be applied in 3 splits. Apply 1/3 rd dose of nitrogen along with a full dose of phosphorous and potash during the last plowing. Apply 1/3 rd dose of nitrogen after 45 days of plating as the second dose and remaining 1/3 rd dose should be applied after 90- 95 days after sowing.
To reduce weed growth, reduce evaporation losses, to regulate soil temperature, and to prevent the crop from various pests and diseases mulching with various materials like paddy straw and dry leaves, etc. is recommended.
It is very important to keep the crop weed-free in the initial days of crop growth for better growth and development of the crop by reducing the competition. Depending upon the intensity of weeds, 3-4 number of hand weeding’s need to be carried out.
Break the fibrous roots with the help of Khurpi around the plant to support the net growth. Ginger requires at least around 2 earthing up for better returns at 50 and 75 days after planting.
Avoid water stagnation in the field. Irrigate the crop immediately after planting. In areas receiving less rainfall and in soils with less water retention capacity, crops need to be irrigated at regular intervals. There is no need for irrigation during the rainy season. The water requirement of ginger during the crop cycle is 1320 -1520. Rhizomes produced under rainfed conditions contain a high content of fiber.
Aphids and cutworms etc. are the major insect pests of ginger, but they don’t reduce the yields to significant levels. Bacterial wilt and leaf spot etc. are the common diseases of ginger. Ginger possesses tolerance to leaf spot diseases.
The major problem in ginger cultivation is soft rot. Leaves of the plant affected with soft rot will turn in yellow. At the basal portion of the stem, we can find rotting and water-soaked appearance. Rhizomes of the affected plants will turn in soft and pulpy. This malady can be controlled effectively by maintaining proper sanitation. We can also control this soft rot by spraying Trichoderma. Dithane Z-78 at a rate of 2g per liter water provides better control against these diseases.
Larvae feed on internal tissue by boring into the shoots; as a result, affected plant parts will turn into yellow color and dry. The characteristics symptom of this pest is the presence of boreholes on the shoots. Collection and destruction of affected plant parts and spraying Malathion 0.1 % provides better control over this pest.
Withering and yellowing of leaves is the symptom of harvesting in ginger. Based on the type of variety used, ginger comes to harvesting within 8 -10 months after planting. Proper preventive measures have to be taken up to reduce mechanical injuries to the rhizomes while harvesting to reduce post-harvest losses. Rhizomes should be harvested six months after planting to prepare vegetable ginger. For dry ginger, harvesting needs to be taken up eight months after transplanting.
The average yield potential of a well-maintained ginger crop is 20 tones per hectare.