Coriander (Coriandrum sativum)is an important spice crop that belongs to the family Apiaceae. Coriander is also called Chinese parsley. It is an annual herb. In coriander all parts of the plant are useful. Leaves and grains of coriander are mostly used in preparation of various dishes. Coriander is indispensable part of cooking all over the world. Coriander is rich source of Vitamin – C. It also possesses high medicinal value. In this article we will discuss all the possible aspects of coriander cultivation.
Verities of coriander:
Karan – it is highly resistant to stem gall and wilt disease.
Sadhana – It is resistant to aphids and 70 cm tall. Thrives well under black cotton soils and yield is 1000-1100 kg grains per hectare.
Co-1 – It is a dual-purpose type. Duration110 days. It is tolerant to grain mold.
Co-2 – It is tolerant of drought and high yielding, dual purpose.
Co-3- Duration of this crop is 90 days. It is least susceptible to wilt and mold.
CS-2 – It is a bushy type with a profuse branching habit
CS-287- It is suitable for rainfed conditions.
Coriander requires well-drained loamy soils. It performs well at soil pH ranging from 6-8. It does well in soils rich in organic matter. Avoid soils with poor drainage facilities for coriander cultivation.
Generally coriander is a warm-season crop. It requires cool and dry climate for its cultivation. It cannot tolerant of frost conditions. The optimum temperature for coriander cultivation is 15-28 ̊ C, and it requires an average rainfall of 75-100 mm. Don’t go through coriander cultivation during hot summer.
Incorporate 4-5 tonnes of farmyard manure during the preparation of land. Plough the land twice or thrice to get a fine tilth. For an irrigated crop, prepare the beds of convenient size. Remove the weeds, stubbles, and residues of the previous season before plowing the land.
The seed rate will be different for irrigated and rain-fed crops. Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Triciderma etc. will provide protection from diseases like wilt etc.
8-10 kilograms per hectare – under irrigated conditions
18-20 kilograms per hectare- under Rainfed conditions
Mostly coriander is grown as rabi season crop. However, round the year its cultivation is possible.
Sowing time between June- July and September – October
Germination will occur within 10-15 days after sowing. Breaking seeds into two and Soaking of seeds in water for 8-10 hours before sowing ensures better germination. Germination will not occur when whole seed was sowed.
Recommended spacing for coriander cultivation is20 – 30 cm between rows and 15 cm between plants.
Weeds are a major problem during the initial stages of coriander; protecting the crop at this stage is very important to get higher yields. Spraying of pre-emergence herbicides like pendimethalin at 1.3 to 1.6 kg per acre after mixing with 220 liters of water will provide better protection from weeds. Two to three hand weeding cycles are necessary for better weed control.By controlling weeds effectively we can reap out higher yields.
First weeding should be carried out after 30 days of sowing.
Second sowing should be carried out after 2-3 weeks after sowing.
First irrigation should be provided immediately after sowing. Subsequent irrigation should be provided at every 7-10 days intervals. Avoid water stagnation in the field. In rainy season irrigation intervals can be prolonged depending upon the moisture content of the soil. Provide irrigation whenever it is necessary and do not let the crop to dry up without irrigating the crop.
Add 10 tonnes of farmyard manure per hectare during the last plowing.
Basal dose: 40 kilograms of N, 40 kilograms of P and 20 kilo grams of P.
Topdressing: 10 kilograms of N per hectare at 30 days after sowing.
Major Pests and diseases:
Management: spraying of imidacloprid at a rate of 6 ml per 10 liters of water will effectively control aphids.
Management:Foliar spray of wettable sulfur of 1 kilogram per hectare or spraying of Dinocap at 250 ml per hectare controls powdery mildew.
Wilt:wilt is the most serious disease in coriander cultivation.
It can be controlled by seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens at 10 grams per kg seed.
Grain mold: High humidity favors the development of this disease.
Management: Avoid humid conditions during grain development, for this spray carbendazim at 200 grams per hectare to controls this problem.
For leaf purposes, coriander will be ready for harvesting within 30-40 days after sowing. The whole plant is pulled out, and they were tied into small bundles after cleaning the roots without soil, and for grain purposes, the crop should be harvested when fruits mature enough, and 60-80 % grain turns in to straw yellow color. The crop should be harvested at proper stage as there could be lost in yield losses and also reduction in quality of the product.
By cultivating coriander in one-hectare, a farmer can get a yield of 6-7 tonnes of leaf yield, 500-600 kilograms of grain yield (irrigated), and 300-400 kilograms of grain yield (under rainfed conditions).
As demand for coriander leaves and seeds is evergreen in the market, by adopting coriander cultivation, we can bag good returns.
Uses of coriander:
It contains antioxidants.
Coriander protects the health of heart and brain health.
Improve digestion and promote gut health.
Provide protection to the skin.
Coriander also helps in lowering blood sugar.
It also plays a role in reducing Diarrhea and cough.